The Gifts of the Quaker Way

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Some while ago, I started reading G.K. Chesterton’s apologetic classic The Catholic Church and Conversion (1927) and was amused and delighted to find a reference to Quakers nestled in its yellowing pages. Unsurprisingly perhaps, Chesterton is not particularly interested in Quaker life or theology on its own terms. Indeed, Quakerism is only mentioned, insofar as it serves to support Chesterton’s core claim; that Christian sects possess their vivacity and truth only insofar as they partake in the Catholic tradition. In this vein, Chesterton argues that:

It is not a question of comparing the merits and defects of the Quaker meeting-house set beside the Catholic Cathedral. It is the Quaker meeting house that is inside the Catholic Cathedral; it is the Catholic cathedral which covers everything like the vault of the Crystal Palace; and it is when we look up at the vast distant dome covering all the exhibits that we trace the Gothic roof and the pointed windows. In other words, Quakerism is but a temporary form of Quietism which has arisen technically outside the Church…..The principle of life in all these variations of Protestantism, insofar as it is not a principle of death, consists of what remained of Catholic Christendom; and to Catholic Christendom they have always returned to be recharged with vitality (The Collected Works of G. K. Chesterton, Vol. 3, (San Francisco, 1990, p. 101).

A conservative reaction among Friends is to say that Chesterton’s cathedral is a pernicious illusion. For early Friends, the Roman Church was not much a deep and vital wellspring, but the seat and zero-point of a ‘night of apostasy’. Rather than Quakers existing within the cathedral of Christendom, George Fox saw Catholics and others, as outside the Kingdom. This exclusivist view had great traction for a community whose members suffered horrific persecution. Blighted by torture and imprisonment, it was easy for early Quakers to see themselves as a new Israel midst a latter-day Babylon. Yet, alongside this sectarian tone, early Friends also reflected a dazzling and radical generosity, rooted in the experimental doctrine of the Inward Light. As the first-generation Friend Isaac Penington argued, Quakers should look upon the various Churches of Christ with sympathy rather than derision:

The great error of the ages of apostasy hath been to set up an outward order and uniformity, and to make men’s consciences to bend thereto, either by arguments of wisdom, or by force; but the property of the true church government is to leave the conscience to its full liberty in the Lord, to preserve it single and entire for the Lord to exercise, and to seek unity in the Light and in the Spirit, walking sweetly and harmoniously together in the midst of different practices. Yea and thee that hath faith and can see beyond another yet can have it to himself, and not disturb his brother with it, but can descend and walk with him according to his measure; and if his brother have any burden upon him, he can lend him his shoulder, and bear part of his burden with him [Christian Faith and Practice, 222].

As Friends moved from the realms of social ostracism to the edges of mainstream society, Pennington’s charitable attitude became a significant thread in the life of the Religious Society of Friends. By the twentieth-century and the advent of ‘Liberal Quakerism’ increasing numbers of Friends understood themselves as part of an outward-looking expansive Christian family. While few of these Friends would have subscribed to Chesterton’s implication that they were really disgruntled Catholics, Chesterton’s suggestion that Quakerism exists within the body of the Church became mainstream opinion. If we can indeed observe a Gothic roof within the Meeting House, what role should Quakers perform for the Church as a whole?

An inkling of that role emerges when we consider Chesterton’s claim that Quakerism is ‘temporary’. While the charge of temporarily has a ring of the diminutive about it, I suggest it can be read in a more positive way. Temporarily does not mean insignificance or worthlessness. Rather it means contingency and dependence. As Friends we always seek the guidance of the Spirit in the midst of our lives, and from our earliest days have been acutely aware that we do not succeed by our own effort. This is the first service Quakers can offer Chesterton’s Christendom; that of reminding the Church that its structures, actions and proclamations can only transform the world if they come from a place of being ‘led’. The Church on its own has neither an automatic right to exist nor a right to be heard. The Church continues to exist by graceful invitation only.

A second service Quakers could perform for the diverse followers of Christ is derived from what Chesterton calls our ‘quietist’ way. What Quakers bring to the table is the recognition that the quality of our spiritual life depends a great deal upon the quality of society’s use of silence. In our culture there are many forms of injury and injustice that manifest themselves as silence. There is the silence of the broken, the abused, the ignored and forgotten. There is the silence which masks anger, evasion and powerlessness. There is the deep silence of negation and nihilism which refuses meaning, joy and fellowship. And there is the silence provoked by another’s refusal to listen. This is the state of hopelessness expressed so vividly in Simon and Garfunkel’s ‘Sound of Silence‘:

And in the naked light I saw
Ten thousand people, maybe more
People talking without speaking
People hearing without listening
People writing songs that voices never share
And no one dared
Disturb the sound of silence.

Yet in our worship together, Friends offer the Church a window into an ordered stillness which is at root sacramental. In place of silence as negation, Friends take joy in a silence of listening, a silence of comfort, in short a silence of trust. This is the silence experienced by lovers who do not need to speak, and the silence of the mystic who knows that words are not enough to encompass that which sustains and enlivens her life. With these gifts in hand, Friends should encourage fellow Christians to resist the logo-centric allure of the 24/7 media, which revels noisy commentary but shuns genuine insight. It is better that the Church provides a nugget of spiritual nourishment every twenty years or so rather than tie itself in vacuous and irrelevant conversations for decades at a time.  The Quaker advice, ‘Attend to what love requires of you, which may not be great busyness’ is a call to the whole Church. In a world of seemingly intractable problems, the disciples of Jesus should not feel like they have to shoulder the troubles of the world alone. They should reach out to others- seeking solidarity and comfort as a means of achieving positive, if incremental change. Instead of worrying about ‘bums on seats’, social relevance, or the media spotlight, the ‘Body of Christ’ needs to concentrate on opening up and broadening out its priorities. We Quakers need to make sure we play a full part in this process. At times of great technological and cultural change it is all too tempting for Christians to become forces of reaction- more concerned about preserving time-honoured structures than proclaiming the perennial Good News of wholeness and healing. Yet such a ‘bunker-mentality’ needs to be firmly resisted. In times of upheaval, the Church needs to be more giving and more inclusive. For me, this is both the true meaning and task of ‘catholicity’- to be an open door, and a space of loving dialogue. And here again, we come back to the Quaker gift of silence. With moments of stillness and pause we allow ourselves to listen closely, to place ourselves in the shoes of others and develop those habits of mind which sustain peace and charity among different communities.

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4 thoughts on “The Gifts of the Quaker Way

  1. Thank you for this. I am the Quaker representative on the Churches Together in Cheshire Church Leaders’ group, and am very conscious that my role is to bring into that ecumenical setting the value of the Quaker way for the whole church.

  2. Nice post. We also bring a different sense of ‘church governance’. i attend a conference of spiritual directors in Tasmania the other week. It was addressed by an RC religious in five lectures; her topic was discernment and very complicated. So another gift is our own take on discernment whic hwe practice in a number of ways, all of them blessedly simple. Btw Penington with one ‘n’—I’m a proud pedant! Thanks.

  3. The Penington quotation is an admonition against persecution, such as incarceration or appropriation of property; it is not taking the stand that liberal Quakers have devolved into: that the testimony of equality legitimizes every notional speculation the individual entertains. Compassion for the early Friends did not entail leaving error unchallenged. On the contrary, to not confront another who was captivated by some power that was opposed or ignorant of Christ’s power would have been for them a faithless exercise of God’s gift of grace.

    By way of example, Penington’s title page in one of his treatises is the following:

    The Root of Popery Struck at and the True Ancient Apostolic Foundation Discovered in some Propositions to the Papists concerning Fallibility and Infallibility which Cut Down The Uncertain, and Manifest the Certain Way of Receiving and growing up into the Truth; also Some Considerations concerning the True and False Church and Ministry,with the State of each since the days of the apostles held forth in true Love and Pity to the Souls of the Papists, that they may Hear and Consider and not Mistake and Stumble at the Rock of Ages, whereupon the Prophets, Apostles, and whole Flock of God throughout all Generations, have been built. There is likewise somewhat added concerning the Ground of Error, and the Way to Truth and Unity, for the Sake of such as are more Spiritual, and have been more inwardly exercised in searching after Truth. By Isaac Penington the Younger “In vain do they worship me, teaching for Doctrines the commandments of Men. Mat. 15:9 [1600] (Works, II).

    Penington holds forth his view “in true Love and Pity to the Souls of the Papists,” typifying the early Friends understanding that failing to know and receive Christ was the single, most tragic failure a human could evince. Their mission was to reach as many people as possible with the Word, the prophetic ministry, for that was the convincing power.

    Penington’s concern “to descend and walk with a brother” who has been less “inwardly exercised in searching after Truth” is charitable pastoral counseling regarding personal interaction. This does not, however, comport with your suggestion that such charitable handling is of the same source and substance as later centuries’ liberal confusion and license toward misrepresentation and ignorance of the essential understanding of Quaker faith.

    The early Friends perspective is not continuous with liberal Friends, as the former had come into an experiential knowledge of Jesus Christ. Liberal Friends’ theological basis is grounded in Greek philosophy of a natural power (which they call the light) contiguous with the mind. Early Friends had discovered a power that was beyond any power that the human mind can generate; early Friends understood their faith in prophetic terms, not philosophical. As Fox said, “They that have Christ within have that which is above the heathen philosophies.”

  4. Edward Burrough wrote the preface to Vol. III of the Works of Fox. His opening statement is “To all the world to whom this may come to be read, that they read with a good understanding, and hereby they may come to the perfect knowledge of the ground of difference between the priests, and professors, and all sects in these nations, and us who are in scorn called Quakers; showing that the controversy on our part is just and equal against them all, and that we have sufficient cause to cry against them, and to deny their ministry, their church, their worship, and their whole religion, as being not in the power, and by the spirit of the living God, as commanded of him, or ever practised by his saints: but this declareth the ground, and foundation thereof to be another thing, than that on which the true church, and ministry, and practice, and worship, and true religion were built in the days of the apostles. And also, this is an invitation to all sects and professions of people, to come forth and try if what they hold and profess be according to the scriptures of truth; and to do this by evident and sound arguments, and by the best spiritual weapons they have, and to lay aside all this persecution and unrighteous dealing, and stocking, and whipping, and imprisoning of us for speaking against their religion; and that they come forth in fair dispute, to contend in the spirit of meekness, for what they profess and practice, and to prove, according to the scriptures, their ministry, church, and whole religion, that it is in, and by the spirit and power of God, or otherwise to renounce and deny all their religion, and the profession and practices thereof, that every man may be satisfied who they are that are in the true and right way, and of the true worship, and true religion, and who are not; and this is desired by us who are called Quakers.” (Works of Fox, Vol. III, 1831, p.5).

    Burrough goes on to list various things that were revealed to them from their rising up to be a people: (See pages 11-15)

    1. …after our long seeking the Lord appeared to us, and revealed his glory in us, and gave us of his spirit from heaven, and poured it upon us, and gave us of his wisdom to guide us, whereby we saw all the world, and the true state of things, and the true condition of the church in her present estate.

    2. First the Lord brought us by his power and wisdom, and the word by which all things were made, to know and understand, and see perfectly, that God had given to us…a light from himself shining in our hearts and consciences; which light, Christ his son…had lighted every man withal; which light in us we found sufficient to reprove us, and convince us of every evil deed, word, and thought, and by it, in us, we came to know good from evil, right from wrong, and whatsoever is of God, and according to him, from what is of the devil, and what was contrary to God in motion, word, and works.

    3. …we thereby came to know man, what he was in his creation before transgression, and how he was deceived and overcome by the devil, and his estate in transgression, and in disobedience, and how he is driven and banished from the presence of the Lord, and the sorrow and anguish which he is in and to undergo. And also by the light in us, we perfectly came to know the way of restoration, and the means by which to be restored, and the state of man when come out of transgression and restored.

    4. …the perfect estate of the church we came to know; her estate before the apostles’ days, and in the apostles’ days, and since the days of the apostles. And her present estate we found to he as a woman who had once been clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, who brought forth him that was to rule the nations; but she was fled into the wilderness, and there sitting desolate, in her place that was prepared of God for such a season, in the very end of which season, when the time of her sojourning was towards a full end, then were we brought forth.

    5. So that all these things concerning man, and concerning the times and seasons, and the changing and renewing of times, and all things that pertain to salvation, and redemption, and eternal life, needful for man to know, all these were revealed, discovered, and made known to us, by the light which was in us, which Christ had lighted us withal.

    This is the foundation from which the early Friends acted. There is much in these pages from Vol. III that I must leave unquoted here, but I encourage all who read this blog and these comments to look up that document and read it. Because, if one does not understand the foundation, one cannot perceive the significance of the building built on that foundation. One must grasp this foundation in order to appreciate Burrough’s later statement: “Then having thus armed us with power, strength, and wisdom, and dominion, according to his mind, and we having learned of him, and being taught of him in all things, and he having chosen us into his work, and put his sword into our hand, and given us perfect commission to go forth in his name and authority, having the word from his mouth what to cut down and what to preserve, and having the everlasting gospel to preach to the inhabitants of the earth, and being commanded in spirit to leave all, and follow him, and go forth in his work, yea an absolute necessity was laid upon us, and wo unto us if we preached not the gospel. For when we looked abroad and beheld the world, behold it was altogether darkness, and even as a wilderness, and desolate, and barren of good fruit; and death reigned over men, and no good fruit was brought forth to God, but leaves we beheld upon every soul…” (p. 15)

    These statements from Edward Burrough are in accord with the statements made by Isaac Penington, as pointed out by Patricia Dallmann.

    If one wants to arrive at the position of “the Quaker way” as being one among many ways, then the starting point must be dismissal of the early Friends assessment of who they were as the people of God. But be careful, here. If one tears down the foundation of the building, the much admired structure becomes a heap of rubble. The edifice built by the early Friends will stand on no other foundation than that described by Penington and Burrough in the above examples.

    Our calling is to know again God building His kingdom in this our generation. Such work will begin with laying the same foundation of certainty of “Thus says the Lord” within ourselves as described by Edward Burrough. Then we will have much more to offer the world than scraps salvaged from the edifice of the “people of God, in scorn called Quakers.”

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